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 The SRC subsequently renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic, dissolved the parliament and the Supreme Court, and suspended the constitution. The El-Buur episode drastically changed the strategy of Italy as it revived memories of the Adwa fiasco when Italy had been defeated by Abyssinia. He repulsed the British in four expeditions and had favorable diplomatic relations with the Central Powers of the Ottoman and German Empires. Despite his losses, Emperor Yeshaq was still able to continue field armies against Jamal. The fascist government was surprised by the setback in Hobyo. , A referendum was held in neighboring Djibouti (then known as French Somaliland) in 1958, on the eve of Somalia's independence in 1960, to decide whether or not to join the Somali Republic or to remain with France.  On 17 December 2014, former Premier Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke was reappointed Prime Minister.. Columns of the new Zaptié began to move towards the sultanate. , The Sultanate of Mogadishu's first dynasty was established by Abubakr bin Fakhr ad-Din.  He received 189 votes from the TFG Parliament, while the closest contender, erstwhile Somali ambassador to Washington Abdullahi Ahmed Addou, got 79 votes in the third round of voting. He continued the war against the Solomonic Empire. This sparked the beginning and outrage among the Bimal clan, many of them joined the Bimal resistance against Italy. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1992. He died a natural death and was succeeded by his brother Mansur ad-Din who invaded the capital and royal seat of the Solomonic Empire and drove Emperor Dawit II to Yedaya where according to al-Maqrizi, Sultan Mansur destroyed a Solomonic army and killed the Emperor. In retaliation the Bernica and other warships were called on to bombard all main coastal towns of the Majeerteen. The pressure engendered by the new development forced the two rival sultanates to settle their differences over possession of Nugaal, and form a united front against their common enemy. However, Jamal on hearing of Yeshaq's plan to send several large armies to attack three different areas of Adal (including the capital), returned to Adal, where he fought the Solomonic forces at Harjai and, according to al-Maqrizi, this is where the Emperor Yeshaq died in battle. In the first week of the conflict, Somali armed forces seized the southern and central parts of the Ogaden. Before the Italians could concentrate on the Majeerteen, they were diverted by new setbacks. The charter guarantees respect for universal standards of human rights to all subjects of the law. Somalia caught the world’s attention in 2011 when a famine killed over a quarter of a million people. Northwestern Somalia would remain a protectorate, while northeastern, central and southern Somalia by agreement became a United Nations Trusteeship on 1 April 1950, with a promise of independence after 10 years. Here, he received an ambassador from the Emperor beseeching him to send help against the Muslims.  Other scholars propose that the Afro-Asiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there. Joined by Ethiopian troops, they were at first successful against the Muslims; but, they were subsequently defeated at the Battle of Wofla (28 August 1542), and their commander captured and executed. The conquest of Shoa ignited a rivalry for supremacy between the Christian Solomonids and the Muslim Ifatites, which resulted in several devastating wars and ultimately ended in a Solomonic victory over the Kingdom of Ifat.  The Portuguese had been in the area earlier – in the early 16th century, in search of the legendary priest-king Prester John) – and, although a diplomatic mission from Portugal, led by Rodrigo de Lima, had failed to improve relations between the countries, they responded to the Ethiopian pleas for help and sent a military expedition to their fellow Christians.  Italy acquired full control of the northeastern, central and southern parts of the territory after successfully waging a Campaign of the Sultanates against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and the Sultanate of Hobyo. According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II, upon his conquest of Egypt (525 BC), sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission. According to the prime minister of Somalia, to improve transparency, Cabinet ministers fully disclosed their assets and signed a code of ethics.  The Somali-Ottoman offensive managed to drive out the Portuguese from several important cities such as Pate, Mombasa and Kilwa. He then advanced to the mountains of Mokha, where he encountered a 30,000 strong Solomonic army. What is going on in Somalia? In 1403 or 1415 (under Emperor Dawit I or Emperor Yeshaq I, respectively), measures were taken against the Muslim Sultanate of Adal. Sultan Jamal continued to advance further into the Abyssinian heartland. To undermine the resistance, however, and before the Eritrean reinforcement could arrive, De Vecchi began to instill distrust among the local people by buying the loyalty of some of them.  As had been expected, the allotted ministerial positions were significantly reduced in numbers, with only 18 administrative posts unveiled versus the previous government's bloated 39 portfolios. The resistance, albeit clan-based initially transformed into one with a religious fervour, mainly Bimal, (but also later on some of the Wa’dan, Hintire and other clans of the Geledi confederation joined).. In addition, Hassan gave a clarion call for Somali unity and independence, in the process organizing his follower-warriors. Jeremy Black, Cambridge illustrated atlas, warfare: Renaissance to revolution, 1492–1792, (Cambridge University Press: 1996), p.9.  Following his visit to the city, the 12th century Syrian historian Yaqut al-Hamawi wrote that it was inhabited by "Berbers", the ancestors of the modern Somalis.. To demoralise the resistance, ships were ordered to target and bombard the sultanate's coastal towns and villages. It is, without having the name, the freest port in the world, and the most important trading place on the whole Arabian Gulf. The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Mohamed Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army. However, Barre's Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party politburo continued to rule. Who are al-Shabaab and what are their goals? In early October 1924, E. Coronaro, the new Alula commissioner, presented Boqor (king) Osman Mahamuud with an ultimatum to disarm and surrender. After returning home, Jamal sent his brother Ahmad with the Christian battle-expert Harb Jaush to successfully attack the province of Dawaro. In the late 19th century, through a succession of treaties with these kingdoms, the British and Italians gained control of parts of the coast, and established British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland. In the classical period, the Somali city-states of Mosylon, Opone, Malao, Sarapion, Mundus, Essina and Tabae in Somalia developed a lucrative trade network connecting with merchants from Phoenicia, Ptolemic Egypt, Greece, Parthian Persia, Sheba, Nabataea and the Roman Empire. Dubats, Zaptié and Bande irregolari form of customary law, called Xeer ( pronounced /ħeːr/.... 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